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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 19-23

Pattern of anterior segment eye disorders in diabetic patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Clinic, Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Anas Lawan
Eye Clinic, Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/archms.archms_3_16

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Background: The aim of the study is to determine the pattern, frequency, and types of anterior segment disorders in diabetic patients attending the outpatient specialist Diabetes Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano. Patients and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of diabetic patients in AKTH over a 1-year period. Sample size was estimated using Fisher's formula, and systematic sampling was done to ensure proper randomization of patients that fulfilled the study criteria. Information obtained included patients' bio-data, height, weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS), type and duration of diabetes, associated comorbidities; visual acuity and anterior segment were examined using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Results: A total of 390 patients were examined during the study. There were 166 (42.6%) males and 224 (57.4%) females (M:F ratio = 1:1.35). Mean age was 54.81 ± 12.21 years. Seventy-four (18.97%) patients had type I disease, while 316 (81.03%) patients had type II disease. The mean presenting FBS was 9.52 mmol/L ± standard deviation 4.22, with a wide range of 3.4–24.8 mmol/L. Four patients were bilaterally blind, while ten were unilaterally blind from cataract and glaucoma. Myopia and myopic astigmatism were the most observed refractive errors though not statistically associated with high FBS (×2 = 1.00 P = 0.3165). Chronic blepharitis was the main lid finding and found to be related to high FBS (×2 = 38.68 P< 0.000001). Ocular surface findings included pterygia (3.85%), pinguecula (2.56%), dry eyes (2.31%), and combination of these. Bilateral rubeosis iridis and iris atrophy were found in 8 (2.1%) and 6 (1.5%) patients, respectively. Lens opacities varied in location and visual significance. Nuclear sclerosis was the most common lens disorder while posterior subcapsular cataract was the second predominant type observed and was associated with disease duration >10 years (×2 = 11.48, P = 0.0007039). Conclusion: Anterior segment eye disorders in diabetic patients could be clinically significant and yet unreported by the patient. These may cause low vision and blindness similar to nondiabetic population. The screening protocol in the study location should include routine eye examination.

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